Co-Design and Design (Group 7)
“Co-design is a method. It is a way of processing through a problem or design scenario.” (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).
Co-design is about designers working alongside people from various backgrounds and professions, not necessary in design, in order to add value and improve the design process. This collaboration aims to: gather a range of insights, benefit all those involved, creates ‘tangible outcomes’ (Papeschi and Kollmann, 2010) and ‘sees everyone as designers’ (Fuad-Luke, 2007).
Co-design aims to provide solutions for the future by addressing today’s worldwide environmental and social issues such as sustainability, crime and healthcare. As such, designers are evaluating ‘behavioral change in people’ (Kingsley, 2009). The innovative ideas generated by co-designing benefit everyone involved.
In order to co-design, designers must conduct themselves in a professional manner; adhering to an ‘ethical code of practice’ (RSA, 2009) especially when dealing with peoples livelihoods. Such practice includes showing empathy (Kingsley, 2009), patience, consideration and support.
Co-design has became very popular in the millennium era with Google hits raking up at 1,700,000 in 2007 (Sanders and Stappers, 2008) however it is ‘not a new phenomenon’ (Ballie, 2009)
“Early pioneers, such as Richard Buckminster Fuller, Victor Papanek, Christopher Alexander and Ivan Illich, believed that design could and should, be able to integrate commercial needs with those of society and the environment.” (Fuad-Luke, 2007)
Co-design originated in the 1970s in Northern Europe (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).During this time ‘co-design’ was titled ‘participatory design’ as it remains in some places today . In fact some sources believe that the start of ‘participatory design’ was ‘underway by the late 1960s’ but was ‘not widely recognised’ (Carroll, 2006). This participatory approach is about ‘user as partner’ (user has more influence in design process). In 1970s America they were more focused on ‘user as subject’ where their role was more focused on researchers examining their users in order to identify opinions/ insights).These two perspectives relating to generating ideas are said to ‘influence one another’ in the design process today (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).
The 1971 ‘Design Research Society’ conference, held in Manchester, England, was significant in shaping the co-design ideology. One of the speakers Nigel Cross wrote a book compiled of presentations from the conference entitled ‘Preface to Design Participation’ (1972) he made a number of very interesting points that designers today should pay attention to. He wrote that this ‘man-made’ world we live in, we are faced with growing problems, problems that could be avoided if we involved society in our ‘decision making’. He also briefly spoke about the ‘need for new approaches to design’. But he was very realistic in his views that this ‘participation’ in the design process was not going to ‘take place before the end of the century’. (Sanders and Stappers, 2008)
Cross’ findings from the conference were right, it has taken a longtime for co-design to be properly talked about within the design world. There are a variety of reasons for this, for instance, some people struggle to think of themselves as being creative, especially in the business world (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).The internet has also had an effect on co-design as people are more connected in sharing information on the concept of co-design through social networking sites such as Twitter.
Designers today have to think about various global factors that affect the world. Co-design gives designers the chance to think about the world they are designing from a different perspective. International companies use co-design as a marketing strategy to make customers feel they are adding their personalities to certain brands such as Volvo; allowing customers to alter the designs of their cars.
Sanders and Stappers (2008), lead thinkers in co-design believe that the future of co-design ‘will become highly valued’ explaining that co-design meanings can bring ‘cross-cultural communication’. As co-design develops it will become ‘far more diverse’.
As the title suggests, ‘Co-Design’ has fundamental links to design. Without design, co-design would not exist. Co-design requires design thinking, design professionals, and real, honest people to make it work. Designers are constantly thinking up new ideas and products, however co-design takes on a different approach to idea generation. It allows designers to break free from the confines of the studio and step into the real world, tackling real life scenarios and problems. If design thinking wasn’t there as a basis to guide these stakeholders then the outcomes would be very different.
Co-design takes advantage of designers skills, such as their ability to think in a visual way, being realistic, facilitating and adapting designs and roles in the group depending on the situation. Designers also have to understand that outcomes in the co-design process do not always work out as planned, situations change, peoples opinions differ, you have to be aware of challenging situations and to be positive when criticism is made.
Co-design works well with other design fields such as service design, empathic design, product design.‘Think Public’ – a social design agency have made a short film entitled ‘the story of co-design’ (2008) which explains co-design with a touch of service design, through a simple story about an island’s struggle with an unused bus service. The problem being ‘the bus service had’t been designed it has simply happened’. The bus committee members were concerned and attempts were left unresolved so they decided to hire a designer. The designer was able to look at the whole service and come up with new ideas by working with the bus committee and using strategic methods, rapid prototyping, different ways of idea generation; in the islands case a council event to gain insights from locals, where all stakeholders were involved. The insights gathered at the event heavily influenced the final design outcome, because the people were listened to and their views were taken on board. The bus service was very successful and sustainable as a result. The message in the video was that designers can use co-design in the many fields that they may find themselves designing in, e.g. healthcare.
‘Co-design is changing the roles of the designer…the implications of this shift for the education of designers and researchers are enormous’ (Sanders and Stappers, 2008).
Image : ‘Speakability Event’ (aware4aphasia, 2009)
The Image shown represents a name tag from a Dundee University student involved in co-designing with ‘Speakability’ -an organisation set up to help those who have suffered a stroke or brain injury.
Ballie, J. (2009). Co Everything: Defining Co-Design for Fashion & Textiles. [Online slideshow] Available: http://www.slideshare.net/considerateclothing/co-everything-defining-codesign-for-fashion-textiles. [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
Carroll, J.M. (2006). ‘Dimensions of Participation in Simon’s Design’, Design Issues, vol 22, no. 2 pp3-18 Available: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/desi.2006.22.2.3. [Accessed: 03/10/2010].
Cross, N. (1972). Design participation: Proceeding of the design research society’s conference 1971, Academy editions, London UK. In E. N. Sanders and P. J. Stappers (Ed.) (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design, CoDesign, 4: 1, 5-18. Available: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/15710880701875068. [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
Dott Cornwall. (2010). Design Methods. Available: http://www.dottcornwall.com/design-matters/design-methods. [Accessed: 30/09/10].
Fuad-Luke, A., (2007)a. ‘Re-defining the purposes of (Sustainable) Design: Enter the Design Enablers, Catalysts in Co-design.’ In J.Chapman and N.Gant (Ed.) Designers, visionaries and other stories pp. 41-55. [e-journal] Available through: Dundee Library database: http://site.ebrary.com.libproxy.dundee.ac.uk/lib/dundee/docDetail.action?docID=10210555. [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
Fuad-Luke, A., (2009)b. Co-Design Loop [Image 1] Available at: http://www.fuad-luke.com/ [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
Harper, F., (2009). Speakability Event [Image 2] Available at: http://aware4aphasia.wordpress.com/2009/11/25/speakability-event/dscf0141/ [Accessed: 06/10/10].
Kingsley, C. (University of Dundee) 2009. ‘Co-Design and the use of Stories to Enable Empathy.‘ 8th European Academy Of Design Conference – 1st, 2nd & 3rd April 2009, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland. Available: www.ead09.org.uk/Papers/029.pdf [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
Papeschi, P. and Kollmann, J. (2010). Beyond Co-design. How open collaboration formats can enhance your design process. [Online slideshow] Available: http://www.slideshare.net/johannakollmann/beyond-codesign-how-open-collaboration-formats-can-enhance-your-design-process. [Accessed 30/09/10].
Sanders, E. B. -N. and Stappers, P.J. (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design, CoDesign, 4: 1, 5-18. Available: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/15710880701875068. [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, (2009). ‘Six challenges for design education’. Available: http://www.thersa.org/about-us/media/press-releases/six-challenges-for-design-education. [Accessed: 30/09/2010].
Thinkpublic, (2008) The Story of Co-Design Available at: http://vimeo.com/3143657 [Accessed: 05/10/10].
I have been doing a lot of research on co-design for my design studies assignment due a week today. Although I have produced a mind-map, it is very much a basis for my thoughts and areas of research.
I think it will be beneficial if I draw out a final mind-map.
Found some help in these books:
So this weeks meeting went rather well, numbers were down but good discussions took place. We started by each talking about how our research for our Wiki page was going so far then we chatted about our individual topics by giving a definition of what we are writing about. As a group we decided to showcase our mind-maps clearing showing difference in styles.
This is my 3rd year of Design Studies at Dundee University. So far the course has taught me about networking, team ethics, design processes, to name a few. The course modules have included topics on sustainability, up-cycling, service design, Co-design.
The 2nd year our modules focused on designing communication aids for people with the speech condition Aphasia to problem solving through service design in Lochee, Dundee. What other module could you arrange meetings to walk Lochee high street at night with the local Police officers and sit around the Lord Provosts table for morning tea? These real life situations do make the different when applying your design knowledge.
3rd year meeting #1:
Last week my design studies group met for the first time to discuss our 1st lecture the day before and to sort out the long list of topics to choose for our wiki page-which is part of assignment one. Staying clear of Uni building we congregated in Braes pub entrance all looking slightly awkward. A kind waiter led us all downstairs into the basement and showed us to a perfectly placed long table, more than roomy for our group. We started off running through the list of our names, making yourself known to the group. We had some general chat before focusing on the task at hand.Already having an incline of what I wanted to do before meeting the group I quickly baggzied ‘co-design’. My reasoning for co-design was because I enjoyed learning about it in 2nd year and some of my work experience through summer has definitely been about co-design so I felt it was quite fitting. The rest spoke about the topics, Abbie quite liked the idea of studying ‘green wash’ everyone was quite engrossed as to what ‘green wash’ meant. Everyone was very encouraging of each other’s choices, advice was given when doubts arose and our topics were finalised. Our group has chosen quite a range of subjects to explore.
Our choices: Wiki topics:
Abbie Graham – Green wash
Gary Gourlay – up-cycling/ down-cycling/ re-cycling
Leanne Evans – ethnography
Victoria Guy: – crime
Lynsey Hutchison – fairtrade
Fiona Harper: – co-design
Kirsty Turpie branding
Here are some pics:
Help wanted for research (University project). What does everyone know about aphasia? (without googling what it is) Thanks in advance…….
Often in my studies we are asked to come up with a design process. Design processes I have begun to find can extend from drawing an arrow from one picture to the next to complicated annotated boards. Design processes are actually all around is. Sometimes we bypass this as it can seem too simple to realise. For instance simple instructions can count as a process; it leads you from one problem to find a solution. Someone/thing must have designed this process in the first place in order for it to work (the teleological argument). Making the instruction clear and easy to understand will ultimately speed up the solution rate hence good instructions make good design processes. This is what we as students have to work out, what is useful in a process and what isn’t in order to ultimate a problem to make something work. When travelling alone on the train one day, the topic of design processes popped into my head, I thought why do we need a process in my experience it’s a rush job of how we think we have preformed not how we actually preformed. Does this mean we need to accurately log every single piece of work we do in order to show progress to a solution? Is photographs cheating as they take seconds to perform unlike a page of text or is this a good thing. Ultimately I think the design processes is a history of work carried out, because the process not only tells us what we progressed to at each stage, but tells us what we did right or wrong, which is generally why history is taught- we only no good or bad design by looking back at the work that it already out there.
This was a snippet from the virgin trains magazine..
I have just finished my first year of design studies at University and part of the module focused on sustainability. The word sustainable seems to be the word of the moment. A lot of people have heard of the word, but do not understand its significance. After reading and listening to many sources I consider sustainability to be preserving the planet (particularly nature) for the future, using the resources we already have and coming up with new ideas to keeps the world moving for example being self sufficient. Being sustainable does not have be restricted to age or class. You can be sustainable on a small scale for instance recycling, taking public transport and buying local produce. Even the smallest piece of land can be used to grow fruit and veg. If everyone took these small changes on board it would change the planet, not significantly but would defiantly help. I believe that politicians could do a lot to make a significant change, especially in countries where there are less strict rules of issues such as pollution levels. We can do more especially on the food front. In the World Wars the citizens of Briton were successful at living off the land, using the resources they had, proving when forced in a situation you get your hands dirty and get on with it. I feel we have became lazy in that respect, it is too easy to go to the shop and buy food when you could be growing some of the food a lot cheaper at home.
Here is a picture of my Mam’s way of becoming more sustainable. I think it helps that she is a keen gardener and that our good neighbour Walter ‘over the fence’ is always on guard to help with any queries surrounding the leeks and tatties!